Archive for Ciencia

Learning How to Learn

Introduction

This article is grounded on a project developed for the Coursera-University of California – San Diego Course “Learning How to Learn,” by Terrence Sejnowski and Barbara Oakley.

The project is followed by about 164000 students from different countries and performed in English, with a huge success.

Procastination

When you want to learn something that catches your eye, some areas of your brain associated with pain are activated. Your brain looks like bring your attention to something else, which makes you feel happy temporarily. Researchers (1) have found that if you start working, the trouble disappears.

In Dr. Oakley book6, I found these  rules as a positive approch to procastination:

1. No going onto the computer during their procatination time. It´s jut too engrossing

2. Before procastinating, identify the easiest homework or problem (No solving is necessary at this point.)

3. Copy the equation or equations that are needed to solve the problem onto a small piece of paper and carry the paper around until they are ready to quit procastination and get back to work.

4. Keep a planner journal
5. Commit yourself to certain routines and tasks each day
6. Delay rewards until you finish the task
7. Watch for procrastination cues
8.Gain trust in your new system
9. Have backup plans for when you still procrastinate

10.Eat your frogs first

Key techniques

Pomodoro Technique

How much time is lost by a distraction at work?
A study by Dr. Gloria Mark2, shows how information workers are interrupted every three minutes. It takes up to 23 minutes to return to the original task, depending on its complexity. 29 percent of employees spend between one and two hours3 per week visiting sites unrelated to their work.

25 minutes of uninterrupted concentration and rest 5 or 10 proposing the Pomodoro technique, which ensures that you can sustain focus on work or study. It was invented by Francesco Cirillo, in the early 1980′s.

Twenty-five minutes on a stopwatch measured concentration, followed by five minutes4 of relaxation as a reward for work performed as a cup of coffee, a fruit or chat casually, is a very effective technique.

 

Pomodoro timer

Pomodoro technique legalproductivity.com

Other techniques that are effective6

Special place devoted just to working
Meditation
Reframe your focus
Put your negative thinking aside
Recall
Transfer
Interleave your learning
Chunking
Chunking are best built  with: a. Focussed attention b. Understanding  c. Practice
For avoid illusions of competence in learning:

•Test yourself!
•Minimize highlighting
•Mistakes are good!

•Use deliberate practice

Memory

This part5 is taken from my blog

What is memory?

 When our mind is exposed to an experience, event or situation has the capacity to evoke, recall or remember and relive what it was saved.

Different types of memories

Memory is the most essential to develop your personality cognitive function.

You can learn a new language studying, but when you talk, you will use your memory to remember the words from.

Verbal memory allows us to remember words minutes after hearing or reading them. Visual memory has greater resilience than verbal, depends on our ability to focus and analysis of objects we have around us. For example the location, the details of a painting or dress of a person.

Sensory memory

It is the memory of shorter duration. Save the information recorded by the five senses only a fraction of a second.

If you flip through a magazine without focusing quickly on pages, you probably will not remember a full page or even the title or picture.

This memory is called iconic and takes less than a second, unlike echoic ear sensory memory that could last for 4 seconds. If you’re more time reading a page, the next memory is activated.

Short-term memory or working memory MCP

Retains information consciously for about a minute, with a maximum of 5-9 items at one time. Save the interpretation of the image recorded. Our experiences can be very emotional in which case we more likely to remember.

Lets remember a phone number or a phrase that we have read to understand the following. We can remember what her take the breakfast, the activities conducted during the day, where we left the car, the phone or glasses.

We can become long-term memory through the process of consolidation and memory games .

Long Term Memory MLP

This type of memory can retain information permanently with virtually unlimited capacity. The information is kept until unconsciously becomes conscious when recovered. It is a process that involves a physical change in the structure of neurons , called long-term potentiation, which is still being studied.

The following are types of long-term memories.

Recognition memory

Allows us to identify something that we have noticed before, like the face of a person, a place visited we found, fragrance, flavor.

Episodic memory

Stores information of what happens temporarily, of the particular events that the subject has experienced. A birthday party or a personal autobiographical event. It is time dependent and lugar.Por example the place and time where you spent your honeymoon.

Semantic memory

It is the memory required for the use of language; refers to the retention of the meaning of concepts and semantic relations among them. That is the significance, meaning or interpretation of linguistic signs as symbols, words, expressions or formal representations. For example the word to find a definition or list of names of capital cities.

It is a memory and encyclopedic knowledge of facts. LA semantic and episodic memory are verbal or declarative type.

Procedural memory

It is a non-declarative learning it is not possible automatic memory using verbal instructions. It allows us to perform certain activities such as playing a musical instrument, drive a car, a bicycle. It is an “automatic” or implicit memory unlike other explicit memories are acting consciously and voluntarily.

Memory Palace Technique 

The memory palace technique, I think a very important technique. It has many applications such as learning words in different languages and lists of medical, legal words and many other disciplines.

The memory palace is a mnemotechnic technique of associating the preferred sites of our house or apartment as the dining room, the kitchen and other spaces with a list of words that we record in our mind for later recall them at the moment need them.

TODAY’S GAME

If an exact image is repeated  click on picture or press the spacebar. Repeat the game several times. Share this game with your friends.

Memtrax Memory Test

Memory Palace

Recomended Reading

1.  Lyons IM, Beilock SL (2012) When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math. PLoS ONE 7(10): e48076. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048076

2. Mark, Gloria. (2006). Too many interuption at work? Gallup Business Journal. 

3. Conner, Cheryl. (2013). Who waste the most time at work? Forbes.

4. Pomodoro team (2014).Things to do in your 5 minutes break

5. Gomez, Gabriel (2012). Juegosparalamemoria.com

6. Oakley, Barbara (2012). A mind for numbers.

Primer dispositivo neural del mundo para restaurar la memoria

El Departamento de Defensa Agencia de Proyectos de Investigación DARPA, financió por $ 2.5 millones, al Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), para desarrollar el primer dispositivo neural para restaurar la memoria.

El aparato es implantable y puede grabar y estimular las neuronas del cerebro para ayudar a restaurar la memoria.  Read more

Tu memoria puede sufrir si no estás en forma

caminar2

Estar en forma

 

 

 

 

 

Un nuevo estudio sugiere que la capacidad aeróbica afecta la memoria a largo plazo. “Los resultados muestran que las personas de menor ajuste pierden más memoria a través del tiempo”, dijo el co-autor. El estudio es uno de los primeros en investigar jóvenes adultos supuestamente sanos. Read more

El cerebro trabaja aún cuando estamos en reposo

Sin la presencia de algún estímulo o tarea para realizar, el cerebro permanece activo, y responde a unos patrones o redes espaciotemporales llamadas redes en reposo, resting-state networks (RSNs). Read more

Recordamos las atrocidades de la guerra según nuestro grupo social

Recordamos de manera selectiva, los detalles de las atrocidades de las guerras, que absuelven los miembros del grupo al que pertenecemos. Un estudio publicado en Psychological Science, revista de la APA, muestra que estas omisiones, pueden llevar a personas de diferentes grupos sociales a tener diferentes recuerdos, de un mismo evento. Read more

El aceite de pescado ayuda a preservar las células cerebrales

Omega 3 del pescado

Una de las estrategias para cuidar nuestro cerebro y nuestra memoria, es una adecuada nutrición. El aceite de pescado Omega 3, puede ayudar a preservar nuestras células cerebrales, aumentando el volumen cerebral y del hipocampo. Read more

Los hombres olvidan más que las mujeres a cualquier edad

Hombre olvidadizo Un estudio publicado en la revista ‘BMC Psychology’, investigó cómo se presenta el deterioro de la memoria en una población de más de 48.000 personas adultas de todas las edades y géneros. Se concluyó que los hombres  en todas las pruebas menos en una, tienen más problemas para recordar. Las mujeres olvidan menos ya sea que tengan 30 o 50 años. Read more

A 10 años llega el efecto del entrenamiento cognitivo avanzado

memoria humanaUn estudio publicado en el  Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, es el primero en muestrar resultados tan duraderos, confirmanndo los beneficios que un correcto entrenamiento, puede producir con mejoramiento significativo en las actividades diarias Read more

Nunca olvido una cara

Nunca olvido una cara

Prosopagnosia es la ceguera para reconocer una cara. A pesar de lo poco frecuente, al otro lado de la escala está la gran capacidad de los superreconocedores profesionales de caras, como algunos policias.

Esta gran capacidad para reconocer rostros ha sido comprobada en 20 policias que identificaron 609 sospechosos de 5000 imágenes captadas con la unidad CCTV, en los disturbios de agosto de 2011 en Londres. Read more

La memoria de eventos futuros

Te ha pasado que olvidaste una cita, un aniversario? Tal vez olvidaste traer el pan o la leche? No recordaste tomar tu medicina? o no sabes que viniste a hacer en este cuarto? Te hago notar que tu memoria prospectiva o la de acciones que debemos realizar en el futuro te está fallando. Read more